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Cinematography is a general term for methods for the photographic recording of phase image sequences with sufficiently short-term successive, regular image changes and for reproducing the image sequences in such a way that the viewer gets the impression of the original movement again

Basics of cinematography

The basics is the use of the stroboscopic effect. The stroboscopic movement is an apparent movement perceived when a phase image sequence is reproduced sufficiently quickly. This happens even though the individual images are only still images. The reason for this is the afterimage effect in the human eye. The most important variable here is the physiologically based flicker fusion frequency, which determines the image frequency necessary for the fusion of the individual phase images into one image with the apparently original, natural movement process.

Movie recording

Different film cameras are used depending on the film production. The unexposed motion picture film is transported in them. A film switching mechanism on the picture window ensures that the film is transported intermittently. It affects the mechanical compensation of the image migration when recording the phase images. In addition, there is the optical compensation of the image migration by means of rotating polygonal prisms, mirror polygons, swivel mirrors or lens rings, which map the phase images in the image window onto the motion picture film.

Film editing

This comprises the following work steps: The photographic layer of the motion picture film exposed in the film camera is developed into negatives or reversal positives using acetate cellulose or polyester as the substrate. Film positives that are ready to be reproduced whether in a studio or a Guaranteed rent place are created with the former by additional copying, while the latter can be used immediately.

Movie playback

A film projector is usually used for this purpose, with which the rental copy is guided to the picture window and projected onto a screen according to the same principles as in the film camera.

While the film is being transported through the film switching mechanism, the projection light beam illuminating the individual phase image is covered by a rotary shutter. This is done a second or third time per image in order to exceed the critical flicker frequency.

Cinematography is a broad topic and these are just the basics.

Introduction to cinematography
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